State Weather Network Details
The Illinois State Water Survey (ISWS) WARM collects weather data from Illinois Climate Network (ICN) weather stations, and hydrological data (shallow groundwater wells, in-stream sediment, reservoir heights and U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) stream gages. The ICN network consists of 19 stations where hourly data have been collected since 1989: air temperature, relative humidity, wind direction and speed, solar radiation, precipitation, soil temperature (2 & 4 inches under bare soil and 4 & 8 inches under sod at 19 stations); soil moisture (2, 4, 8, 20, 39 & 59 inches); estimates of dew point temperature and potential evapotranspiration computed.
Ran by the Center for Geospatial Data Analysis at the Indiana Geological Survey, this network was developed to monitor trends in water loss and gain for different components of the hydrologic cycle. Fifteen sites located throughout Indiana monitor precipitation, air temperature, relative humidity, wind speed, solar radiation, soil temperature, and soil water content.
IN - Purdue Mesonet
The Purdue Mesonet, formerly known as the Purdue Agricultural Automated Weather Stations (PAAWS), is maintained by the Indiana State Climate Office. The Purdue network originally operated from 1974-1985 as MICROS, microprocessor based weather stations (AMS 13th Ag and Forest Met Conference - 1977). The network was relaunched as PAAWS in 1999. In 2019, the PAAWS rebranded to the Purdue Mesonet. 30-minute, hourly and daily data are available from 13 sites for air temperature, relative humidity, wind speed, direction, gusts, precipitation, solar radiation, soil temperature at 4 inches under sod and under bare soil, vapor pressure and saturation vapor pressure. Temperature inversions are now being monitored by the Mesonet. Data archived since 1999 are available online.
Hourly data from many weather networks have been collected under the umbrella of the IEM, including ASOS/AWOS Networks, the Roadway Weather Information System (RWIS), precipitation data from the Data Collection Platforms (DCPs) and the Community Collaborative Rain, Hail and Snow (CoCoRaHS) networks. Data from two other networks also are accessed through this site, the Iowa State University Ag Climate Data (ISU-Ag) and the Soil Climate Atlas Network (SCAN). The ISU-Ag collects air temperature, relative humidity, wind direction and speed, precipitation, solar radiation, soil temperature (4 inches), and estimated potential evapotranspiration at 19 stations, some starting in 1988.
KS - Kansas Mesonet
K-State Research & Extension weather stations are at the root of the Kansas Mesonet. The 55 stations were established beginning in 1986 at KSRE research centers and experiment facilities around the state. Most were co-located with National Weather Service Cooperative Observing Stations. Since that period our network has grown and we now collaborate with the Kansas Water Office, Big Bend Groundwater Management District, the Equus Beds Groundwater Management District, and the USDA Soil Climate Analysis Network.
KY - Kentucky Mesonet
The Kentucky Mesonet, a division of the Kentucky Climate Center, is a statewide monitoring weather and climate monitoring infrastructure with an operations center housed at Western Kentucky University’s Center for Research and Development. It is based upon a network of 68 automated stations that monitor near-surface environmental conditions in the domain from 10 meters above the surface to one meter below the surface.
The Michigan Enviro-Weather Automated Weather Station Network has operated since 1972 and serves the state's agriculture and natural resource industries. Following a recent collaborative agreement with the University of Wisconsin, the network has expanded into neighboring sections of Wisconsin. Temperature (5 ft), relative humidity (5 ft), wind direction and speed (10 ft), precipitation, solar radiation, soil temperature (2, 4 inches), soil moisture (4, 10 inches), leaf wetness (39 inches), and estimated potential evapotranspiration at 81 sites. Data are collected every 60 minutes during the growing season (April-October) and every 3 hours during the off season and made available at daily, hourly, and 5-minute reporting intervals.
Regularly updated climate information are available from a variety of sources. Thirty-one North Dakota Automated Weather Network (NDAWN) stations are located in Minnesota. These include soil temperature, solar radiation, computed evapotranspiration, as well as standard meteorological variables. Minnesota's Department of Agriculture has wired soil temperature probes at the 6 inch level to ten stream gauging DCP/HADS stations (http://www.mda.state.mn.us/soiltemp/).
SROC measures hourly air temperature, relative humidity, wind direction and speed, solar radiation, precipitation, and evaporation, as well as soil temperature (2, 4, 8, 20 and 40 inches) and soil moisture at Waseca MN (2000-2011).
SWROC measures air temperature, precipitation, soil temperature (2, 4, and 8 inches) and soil moisture at Lamberton MN.
NWROC measures hourly air temperature, relative humidity, wind speed and direction, soil temperature (2, 4, 8, 20 inches) and estimated dew point temperature at Crookston, MN.
MNgage began in the late 1960s in the Twin Cities and gradually expanded across Minnesota in the 1970s. The network is based at the Minnesota State Climatology Office, with the number of warm-season observers remaining steady at 1,500 for the past twenty years. Daily precipitation measurements are reported both online and by use of hard copy forms.
MO - Missouri Mesonet
The Missouri Mesonet was established in 1993 and has grown to 34 stations. Real-time weather conditions are available from stations every 5 minutes. Air temperature, relative humidity, wind direction and speed, solar radiation, rainfall, soil temperature (2 and 4 inches), are measured. Hourly and daily climatological data are available on the web from 2000 to present for these stations.
The NDAWN was established in 1989 with the deployment of 6 stations and has expanded to 91 stations today across North Dakota, the Red River Valley, and in the border regions of surrounding states. Each station provides hourly averages of air temperature, relative humidity, dew point temperature, soil temperature at 4 inches (under bare soil and turf), wind speed and direction, and solar radiation, hourly rainfall totals, daily PET, and hourly maximum wind speed. Twenty-one stations also collect soil moisture. Twelve stations provide real-time data, every 10 minutes.
NE - Nebraska Mesonet
Beginning in 1981 with five observing locations, the statewide weather monitoring network has now grown to 68 stations in 49 Nebraska counties. Mesonet stations are equipped to observe hourly conditions for the following variables: air temperature, humidity, liquid precipitation, wind speed and direction, solar radiation, barometric pressure, soil temperature and soil moisture.
The CFAES Weather System has collected daily since 1989 and hourly since 2001. Air temperature, relative humidity, wind direction and speed, solar radiation, precipitation, soil temperature (at 2, 4 inches), and leaf wetness at 17 sites. /p>
OK - Oklahoma Mesonet
The Oklahoma mesonet was established in 1994, and today consists of 120 automated environmental monitoring stations. Each station measures core parameters that include: air temperature and relative humidity at 1.5 m; wind speed, gust, and direction at 10 m; wind speed at 2 m; atmospheric pressure; global down-welling solar radiation; rainfall; bare soil temperature at 10 cm below ground level; and vegetated soil temperatures at 5 and 10 cm below ground level. In addition, many stations also measured or currently measure bare soil temperature at 5 cm; vegetated soil temperature at 25 or 30 cm; and soil moisture at 5, 25, and 60 cm. Mesonet data are collected and transmitted to a central facility every 5 min where they are quality controlled, distributed, and archived. The Oklahoma Mesonet has measured soil temperature under bare soil and native vegetation since 1994 at over 100 sites.
SD - South Dakota Mesonet
Established in 1983 and operated by South Dakota State University, the South Dakota Mesonet is the state's weather network with 27 stations and five-minute updates. Data includes: air temperature, relative humidity, dew point, wind speed and direction, precipitation, solar radiation, bare soil temperature at 4 inches, soil moisture and temperature at 2, 4, 8, 20, and 40 inches, potential evapotranspiration, and atmospheric pressure.
The University of Wisconsin Agricultural Extension has an archive of data through 2017 for 26 sites in Wisconsin. At each site, these stations recorded temperature, humidity, dew point, wind insolation, reference evapotranspiration, percent cloud cover. In addition, the UWAE sites also gathered daily soil temperature at 2, 4, 20 and 40 inches; and five-minute rainfall data.